Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomerulus, a functional unit of the kidney formed by a tangle of capillaries, where blood filtration and urine formation occur.
Glomerulonephritis may be primary or secondary, acute or chronic. The primaries settle directly into the glomerulus and are usually caused by immunological changes resulting from infections by viruses or bacteria. According to the clinical signs they present, they are given specific names. The most common is IgA nephropathy, or Berger’s disease, which is characterized by the presence of blood in the urine, high blood pressure and, in some cases, leg edema.
The secondary ones do not originate primarily in the glomerulus but are associated with diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B and C , HIV infection, or even some medications. The most frequent causes, however, are diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension.
The characteristics and evolution of the disease vary greatly. For example, IgA nephropathy may go into spontaneous remission and only requires that the patient be kept under observation. However, there are severe cases in which the evolution of kidney disease is rapid, aggressive, and patients with the disease should be referred for dialysis or kidney transplant in Delhi.
Primary glomerulonephritis may be asymptomatic, which delays diagnosis and initiation of treatment. When they appear, symptoms vary greatly from patient to patient. These include high blood pressure (high blood pressure), eye and/or leg edema, weight gain due to fluid retention, blood loss (hematuria) and protein (proteinuria) in the urine, tiredness, feeling unwell, weakness and anemia.
In secondary glomerulonephritis, foamy urine (as a result of proteinuria) and edema are the most common symptoms.
Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests of urine and blood, including the measurement of urea and creatinine, are important for the diagnosis of possible glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis of certainty, however, depends on the outcome of renal biopsy that should only be performed when indispensable for conducting treatment.
Treatment of glomerulonephritis is proposed by a nephrologist in Delhi according to the characteristics, severity, and causes of the disease and may require or dispense the use of medications. If there is no need to prescribe them, the recommendation is to decrease protein, salt, and fluid intake and to strictly control blood pressure.
- Periodically monitor blood pressure levels and blood sugar levels. Hypertension and diabetes are major causes of secondary glomerulonephritis;
- Strictly follow the treatment of underlying diseases that may be the cause of glomerulonephritis;
- Avoid excessive salt intake and alcohol consumption;
- Give well-deserved attention to strep throat, a microorganism that can cause kidney damage.