Malignant hypertension is a disease where, in addition to high blood pressure, there is damage to specific organs (such as the kidneys). It is a situation that needs immediate care and expert judgment as there is a risk of serious organ damage such as kidneys and even death.
Malignant arterial hypertension is characterized by severe and abruptly severe blood pressure elevation (characterizing a hypertensive emergency) where there is damage to target organs (vital organs) such as the kidneys and retina with retinal haemorrhage and papilla edema (vision). It requires an immediate reduction in blood pressure in a hospital setting. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
This is why it is very important that a person is known to have high blood pressure regularly follow up with a Cardiologist in Delhi and Nephrologist in Delhi and do not let you take the prescribed medications.
The suspicion of renovascular hypertension is based on suggestive clinical findings, such as treatment-refractory hypertension, appearing before 20 and after 50 years, or associated with renal insufficiency.
The main complementary tests for screening for renovascular hypertension are captopril radioisotopic renal scintigraphy, peripheral renin collection captopril test, renal artery Doppler and, more recently, magnetic resonance angiography. The diagnosis is confirmed only by arteriography. Recent studies have shown alterations in endothelial function, oxidative stress and sympathetic nervous system in renovascular hypertension, which may be involved in the cardiovascular complications of these patients.
The main goals of renovascular hypertension treatment are the effective control of arterial hypertension and the preservation of renal function. The three available therapeutic modalities include clinical treatment, angioplasty or stent implantation and surgical revascularization. The choice of treatment should be individualized based on age, aetiology of stenosis and the presence of associated diseases.
Malignant hypertension is a serious complication of hypertension, characterized by severe and acute elevation of blood pressure, rapidly progressive renal failure, severe retinopathy and heart failure, culminating in the patient’s death within a few months if not treated properly. Currently, better control of blood pressure with effective treatment and knowledge of new pathophysiological mechanisms have improved the survival of these patients.