In India, one in ten Indians suffers from kidney disease. Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD) are a general term for heterogeneous changes that affect both structure and kidney function, with multiple causes and multiple risk factors. It is a long-term disease, which may seem benign, but which often becomes severe and most of the time has asymptomatic evolution.
Most of the time, the evolution of chronic kidney disease is asymptomatic, making the diagnosis late. In such cases, the main immediate treatment is the hemodialysis procedure, says nephrologist in Delhi.
The main risk factors for chronic kidney diseases are:
- People with diabetes (either type 1 or type 2).
- Hypertensive person, defined as blood pressure values above 140/90 mmHg in two measurements with an interval of 1 to 2 weeks.
- Obesity patients (BMI> 30 Kg / m²).
- History of circulatory system disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure).
- Family history of chronic kidney disease.
- Use of nephrotoxic agents, especially medications that require adjustments in patients with impaired renal function.
The most common types of kidney disease
1. Kidney stones
Kidney stones are formed mainly by little fluid intake (characterized by dark urine), high salt and protein consumption, among other problems.
When the stones move and descend through the urethral canal, they cause a lot of pain, due to the obstruction of the urinary flow and dilation of the kidney. They can be complicated by urinary tract infection and can be life-threatening.
2. Kidney infection or pyelonephritis
It is usually caused by a bacterium in the bladder, cystitis, which ends up in the kidney, causing fever and pain on the affected side. Treatment must be with antibiotics and often requires hospitalization.
3. Renal cysts
These are “blisters” that form in the middle of the kidney. Very common after 40 years of age, cysts are diagnosed by routine tests and usually do not cause problems or symptoms or require treatment and can only be followed up.
4. Tumor or kidney cancer
Rare, the tumor occurs due to the high frequency of kidney cysts. It is very common to have to request diagnostic imaging tests for the correct exclusion of this possibility. Tumors are solid lesions different from cysts that contain liquid inside. They are often malignant, but if treated early, there is a good chance of a cure.
5. Loss of kidney function (kidney failure)
Kidney failure occurs when the kidney loses the ability to filter waste, salts and fluids from the blood. Diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that are not well controlled can lead to progressive renal deterioration and eventually the need for hemodialysis and/or kidney transplant for its treatment.
Main symptoms of kidney disease:
– High blood pressure;
– Swelling around the eyes and legs;
– Constant weakness;
– Nausea and frequent vomiting;
– Difficulty urinating;
– Burning or pain when urinating;
– Urinate often, especially at night;
– Bloody-looking urine;
– Urine with lots of foam;
– Low back pain, which does not worsen with movements;
– History of kidney stones.