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Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove excess fluid and electrolytes, as well as waste material from the blood. Proper diagnosis and acute renal failure treatment in Delhi can control and reverse the damage of the kidney.

Acute Renal Failure Treatment in Delhi

acute-renal-failure-treatment-in-delhiIt is more common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly those who need intensive care. In addition, it is usually secondary to complicated surgery, a generalized infection, after a serious injury or when blood flow to the kidneys is interrupted. Although it is usually reversible by acute renal failure treatment in Delhi, the severity is variable and may require renal replacement therapy for a period of time.

What are the symptoms?

It can be manifested by an alteration of the analysis, producing an increase in creatinine and urea levels, or by the appearance of certain symptoms such as a reduction in the volume of urine that can be accompanied by changes in appearance (dark urine, concentrated or with the presence of blood). That reduction in volume can lead to the absence of urine or anuria. Due to this decrease in the volume of the urine, if there is an uncontrolled entry of liquids, there is water retention that leads to the appearance of edema or even a cardiorespiratory overload that triggers.

Uremic syndrome: It is the main consequence of renal failure. There is an accumulation of uremic toxins that produce alterations in various systems. It is capable of causing gastritis with loss of appetite and disorders in the intestinal rhythm. Anemia is caused by a decrease in the formation of red blood cells, as well as an increase in losses, even by some ease for bleeding.

It causes a certain immunodeficiency that facilitates the appearance of infections. There are hormonal changes such as certain hypothyroidism. Among the most affected systems is the neurological one with the development of neuropathy and, above all, progressive metabolic encephalopathy with a deterioration of the cognitive capacity that leads to coma in severe cases.

Of course, the appearance of all these symptoms will depend on the baseline state of the patient, his age and nutritional status, as well as the presence of other organic failures.

What are the causes?

Acute renal failure can occur because some or all of the mechanisms involved in glomerular filtration fail. A decrease of the filtrate can occur when the filtration pressure decreases due to a reduction in blood pressure or significant hypovolemia (absolute due to hemorrhage or dehydration, or relative due to poor distribution of vascular euvolemia as occurs in septic conditions, ascites, intestinal occlusions ).

This acute renal failure can occur due to loss of functional units, such as in glomerulonephritis or by the action of toxic substances such as some medications (including intravenous contrast).

Other causes of acute renal failure are those that occur when an obstructive condition occurs that does not allow the removal of the filtrate, such as when there is a prostatic obstruction or ureteral compression by masses or ganglia.

Risk factor’s

There are several factors that can predispose to the appearance of this disease, such as advanced age, chronic infection, diabetes, high blood pressure, immune disorders, kidney and liver problems, prostatic hypertrophy and bladder obstruction. The signs and symptoms that these patients present and explained by a nephrologist in Delhi are:

  • A decrease in urine production.
  • Failure to dispose of waste products through the urine
  • Fluid retention, causing edema (swelling) in the legs, ankles or feet.
  • Drowsiness, respiratory distress, fatigue, confusion and even coma in very serious cases and usually associated with other diseases.

DIAGNOSIS AND ACUTE RENAL FAILURE TREATMENT IN DELHI

Because acute renal failure is usually a complication of other serious diseases, sometimes the signs and symptoms may go unnoticed or be attributed to the underlying disease. When this disease is suspected, a blood and urine test should be performed. The alterations that may appear are: decrease in the volume of urine (less than 500 milliliters), an increase in the blood of urea and creatinine and elevated electrolytes such as potassium. It is usually necessary to perform an abdominal ultrasound and, sometimes, even a renal biopsy to determine the cause of acute renal failure. The earlier it is resolved, the more likely it is to recover renal function. Occasionally, acute renal
failure causes permanent loss of renal function and people require permanent dialysis or a kidney transplant in Delhi to survive.
dialysis

Acute Renal Failure Treatment in Delhi

Acute renal failure treatment in Delhi begins by correcting the cause that has caused renal failure. This can be clearly observed when there is dehydration or hypotension, replenishing volume, or when there is an obstruction, in this case, the use of a probe or nephrostomy is the solution suggested by a nephrologist in Delhi.

When there has been an important involvement of the kidneys, and there has been no recovery after stabilizing the patient, it is necessary to keep a watch on the vital signs, control the balances to avoid an overload, the use of medications that must be adjusted regarding the dose or its suppression if they can influence negatively In certain cases, resorting to diuretics if it is necessary to increase the rate of diuresis or in some cases start by replacing renal function by using dialysis techniques.

Dialysis in Delhi

Dialysis

Dialysis-in-delhiThe main function of dialysis is to “clean” the blood of the toxins generated, excess water and electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, which is caused by a defect in its elimination by the kidney. Dialysis in Delhi is applied in patients with acute renal failure (reversible) and mainly in those patients with chronic renal failure in the terminal phase and incompatible with life.

It is based on the movement of solutes (ions, urea, creatinine, uric acid, etc.) and solvents (water) through the pores of a semipermeable membrane in relation to the different concentrations of substances following diffusion phenomena, Osmosis, and filtration.

What are the indications of dialysis?

The fundamental indication of dialysis in Delhi is the chronic renal failure treatment in Delhi, which should always be comprehensive, this is with options for changing from one technique to another and the possibility of kidney transplant in Delhi in case there is no contraindication.

The diseases that lead to renal failure are multiple, but the main ones are glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, vascular nephropathies, and diabetic nephropathy. Dialysis is also indicated in acute renal failure and in some poisonings.

Type of Dialysis in Delhi

1. Hemodialysis

When the semipermeable membrane is artificial. These can be cellulosic or synthetic in nature and because of their structure they can be capillary fiber or flat membrane. They vary by their permeability, surface, thickness, electric charge and adsorption capacity.

What is required and how is hemodialysis performed?

A permanent access route to the intravascular torrent is required (preferably an internal arteriovenous fistula, possible a cannula, etc.), an artificial kidney (consisting of a blood pump, a monitor and the dialyzer where the semipermeable membrane is located and where the exchange between the fluid or dialysis bath and the blood takes place).

Usually, the dialysis session in chronic patients takes place three days a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday; or Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday), with a duration of 4 hours per session, in morning, afternoon or evening shifts. It can be carried out in the hospital, in an outpatient dialysis unit or even at the patient’s own home under the guidance of a nephrologist in Delhi.

What complications can occur in hemodialysis?

The main complications are insufficient blood flow (the ideal is greater than 300 cm./min.), Dialysate rupture with blood loss, hypotension, dizziness, headache, nausea or vomiting, itching, cramping, etc. Currently, with modern automatic machines and various variants of bicarbonate dialysis, complications are minimal and largely rectifiable.

2. Peritoneal dialysis

When the semipermeable membrane is natural, as in the case of the patient’s peritoneum (a layer that covers the internal organs of the abdomen and that has multiple capillaries and large surface area).

What is required for peritoneal dialysis?

Peritoneal dialysis requires the placement of a soft multi-perforated catheter in the abdomen, through which dialysis solution (similar to the liquid part of the blood but without waste products) is infused, about two liters with replacement every 4-6 hours during the day and about 8 hours at night, every day of the year.

This method of dialysis in Delhi is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and is performed by the patient himself after a period of hospital learning. It can also be done with a machine or cycler that performs the spare parts on a scheduled basis at night, allowing the patient to be free throughout the day and this is called automated peritoneal dialysis.
dialysis-in-delhi

What complications can occur in peritoneal dialysis?

The main ones are the loss of fluid through the catheter access tunnel, the tunnel or catheter infection, catheter obstruction, peritonitis, abdominal hernias, protein losses, etc. All of them are solved with treatment.

Can the patient choose the type of dialysis in Delhi?

The patient can and should choose, with the help of the treating nephrologist in Gurgaon, the dialysis method (peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis and its multiple variants) that best suits him by his characteristics (age, work, family circumstances, distance to the unit dialysis, type of kidney disease and other concomitant diseases, possibilities or not of access to the intravascular torrent, previous abdominal operations, etc.).

The best nephrologist in Delhi must inform you about all the differences between the different dialysis modalities and the advantages and disadvantages in general and in the specific case of the patient. In addition, since the treatment of terminal chronic renal failure is integrated, it is always possible to switch from one type of dialysis to another in case of intolerance or unresolvable problems.

Kidney Transplant in Delhi

Kidney Transplant

Kidney Transplant in Delhi

Kidney transplant in Delhi consists of the extraction of a kidney from a previously healthy individual (cadaver or live) and its placement in a patient with chronic end-stage renal failure and incompatible with life. A kidney transplant surgeon in Delhi performs the operation. Technically, the operation is simple and consists of three anastomosis or joints (arterial, venous and urinary). The duration of the intervention in the recipient is about 3-4 hours. It allows the integral recovery of renal function and normal life. It requires the taking of anti-rejection or immunosuppressive medication for life and frequent medical checks from a kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.

Kidney Transplant in Delhi

Depending on the origin of the graft, it can be a living relative donor (parents, siblings, children, cousins), an emotionally related living donor (for example, between spouses) and a cadaver donor (due to previous brain death or standing heart). The best results are obtained with a live donor kidney transplant.

When is it indicated?

In all patients with end-stage chronic renal failure and without contraindications, prior to the start of dialysis or once included in hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis program. It requires the performance of a series of analytical, immunological studies, various imaging techniques, assessment of cardiac, pulmonary, neurological, urological, etc., being subsequently included in the waiting list for kidney transplantation in the transplant unit of your area of influence.

What are the results?

At present, the results of renal corpse transplantation are very good, achieving a graft survival of around 90% per year, 70-75% at five years and 50-60% at 10 years. The main causes of long-term graft loss are chronic rejection and death of a patient with a functioning graft in relation to cardiovascular problems, infections, tumors, and liver disease. The results of renal transplantation of living donors are higher than those of cadavers and are characterized by a lower incidence of acute rejection and superior results in terms of graft survival that can be 98% per year, after five years of 85% and at 10 years of 75%.

What advantages does it offer?

The main one is that it restores or normalizes all kidney functions, including the production of erythropoietin-like hormones (necessary for the production of red blood cells), vitamin D (for normal bone maintenance), etc., and not just the function of uropoiesis or elimination of water and waste products such as urea, creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, etc. … that perform the different peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis techniques.

It also allows a better physical and psychic state, a better quality of life and is the cheapest therapeutic option from the year with a functioning graft.

What are the complications?

The most frequent early complications are those related to surgery (urinary obstruction, urinary fistula, liquid collections, surgical wound infection, urinary tract infections, lung infections, etc.). The incidence of high blood pressure, an increase in uric acid, increase in cholesterol is high. In the longer term, the main complications are infections, malignant tumors, chronic rejection, and cardiovascular complications.

Who can be transplanted?

Not all patients with terminal chronic renal failure can be transplanted due to problems or limitations of a medical or surgical nature. This is the case of patients older than 70-75 years (valuing biological age rather than chronological age) and those with significant problems of cardiac, hepatic, neurological, pulmonary origin, chronic
infectious pathology, unresolved tumor diseases, etc. Any patient in whom the vital risk of the operation and of the complications associated with the anti-rejection medication is considered excessive or important, it is better to contraindicate the kidney transplant in Delhi.
kidney-transplant-doctor-in-delhi

What is the waiting list?

Once all the relevant studies have been carried out and it has been verified by the doctor for kidney transplant in Delhi that the patient meets all the requirements and indications for renal transplantation, the data is sent to the reference hospital where the renal transplant unit is located and from where the patient will be notified (through the kidney transplant doctor in Delhi responsible for its follow-up) as soon as a suitable kidney is available due to its characteristics.

Among the necessary data are age, dialysis unit, blood group, tissue typing, cytotoxic antibody results, type of nephropathy, hemodialysis program start date, location telephones, etc. … and the results of the various pre-transplant studies. In India, it can only be included in a waiting list for kidney transplantation.

What is expected of the receiver?

  • To take the medication correctly with the dose and interval indicated by the nephrologist in Delhi responsible for its follow-up.
  • That blood pressure, weight, and temperature be monitored periodically.
  • That you consult quickly before episodes of fever, edema, decrease in urine output or any other complication related or not with kidney transplantation.

It is also important to perform daily physical activity, eat a proper diet, avoid tobacco, maintain the ideal weight, etc.

What is the anti-rejection treatment?

It consists of taking immunosuppressive medication to avoid rejection and achieve graft tolerance. There are various immunosuppression protocols depending on age, degree of immunological risk, depending on whether they are first or more grafts, etc, suggests nephrologist in Delhi.

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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in the urinary tract, which includes the bladder and urethra. Anyone can have an infection of this type, but it is more common in the case of those who have a vulva.

What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

A urinary tract infection is an infection in the urinary tract, which includes the following:

  • The bladder: the organ that collects and stores urine
  • The urethra: the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

There are two types of urinary tract infections: cystitis and urethritis. Cystitis is an infection in the bladder. Urethritis is an infection in the urethra. If left untreated, they can spread and cause a kidney infection. For this reason, urinary tract infections should be taken seriously no matter how common they may be.

What causes urinary tract infections?

Getting these infections is quite easy. Bacteria that live in the vagina, genitals, and areas near the anus can enter the urethra, travel to the bladder and cause an infection. This can happen during sexual activity when bacteria that reside in the genitals, anus, your partner’s fingers or in a sex toy enter the urethra. These infections can also be caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea or other microorganisms.

Although urinary tract infections are not transmitted from one person to another like sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ), having sex can lead to acquiring these infections or making them worse. You don’t have to have sex to get these infections. Everything that causes bacteria to come into contact with the urethra can cause a urinary tract infection.
The propensity to acquire these infections is greater in the following cases:

  • You already had a urinary tract infection.
  • Do you have diabetes?
  • You suffer from obesity.
  • You use spermicide or a diaphragm.
  • You have kidney stones or other obstructions in the urinary tract.

Most people are not able to identify the exact cause of the infection because there are many things that can lead to acquiring it.

What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection?

One of the most common symptoms is a frequent and urgent need to urinate. You may have the feeling of wanting to urinate all the time, even if you have just gone to the bathroom. Other symptoms of urinary tract infections include:

  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Cloudy or smelly urine
  • Blood or pus in your urine
  • Pain, pressure or cramping in your abdomen, back or sides

If the urinary tract infection goes to the kidneys, symptoms may include the following:

  • Pain in the middle of your back (to the right or left of the spine)
  • Fever
  • Shaking chills
  • Sickness
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling tired

If you have any of these symptoms, tell the nephrologist in Delhi as soon as possible. Kidney infections are serious and should be treated immediately. These symptoms are not always caused by a urinary tract infection. Other infections, such as sexually transmitted diseases or vaginitis can cause frequent and painful urine. Only a nephrologist in Gurgaon can tell you for sure if you have a urinary tract infection.

How are urinary tract infections treated and avoided?

These infections can be diagnosed with a simple urine test, and are treated with antibiotics. The type, dose, and duration of treatment of a urinary tract infection depend on what causes the infection and your medical history.

How do I get tested for a urinary tract infection?

You have to check with a nurse or a doctor to know for sure if you have such an infection. Usually, it begins with a talk with the doctor or nurse in which your medical history and the symptoms you have been analyzed. A simple test called “urinalysis” is also done: all you have to do is urinate in a glass; This is then sent to the laboratory for tests to detect any bacteria or determine if there is any sign of infection.

In addition, the kidney specialist in Delhi may have to test you for a sexually transmitted disease ( STD ) that can cause a urinary tract infection or that has similar symptoms.

Is there a treatment for urinary tract infections?

Most of these infections are easy to treat. Urinary tract infection treatment in Delhi usually includes antibiotics, which end it. If you want, you can also take over-the-counter pain relievers. Antibiotics are usually quick and effective: most symptoms disappear on the first or second day of taking the medication.

In any case, be sure to finish all the indicated treatment, even if the symptoms disappear. If you stop urinary tract infection treatment early, it may remain in the body or come back If the symptoms do not go away after a few days or if you have more serious infections in places such as the prostate or kidney, your doctor for kidney in Delhi may recommend that you have more tests, change the medication.

Where can I get tested or treated for a urinary tract infection?

In the local health center, as well as in many other private clinics and medical offices, tests are performed and treatments are offered for this infection.

urinary tract infection treatment in Delhi
How can I avoid a urinary tract infection?

If you ever had a urinary tract infection, you know that once is more than enough. The good news is that they can be avoided. Try these simple tips:

  • Drink plenty of fluids (including water).
  • Urinate when you feel like it. Do not contain urine.
  • Urine before and after having sex.
  • Wash the skin around the anus and genitals with hot water and mild soap.
  • Use barriers such as condoms and oral latex barriers during sex, especially during sexual contact with the anus.

You should also thoroughly wash everything that has touched or been inserted into your anus (such as a finger, penis or sex toy) before it touches the genitals. If you have a vulva, clean it from front to back after using the bathroom and keep it clean and dry. For this, wear underwear with a cotton crotch and avoid using vaginal showers, talcum powder and spray deodorants in the vagina.

If you have urinary tract infections frequently, take cranberry juice (no sugar, not sugary drink) or cranberry pills as a dietary supplement; Both can help prevent infection. If none of these things help, your nurse or doctor can give you a low-dose antibiotic so you can take it regularly after having sex. It is also a good idea to talk with the best nephrologist in
Delhi to see if there is any other reason why you might be getting urinary tract infections.

Hypertension Treatment in Delhi

Hypertension

Hypertension Treatment in Delhi
Hypertension means having high blood pressure and is very common. One in three adults in India has high blood pressure. Without proper Hypertension Treatment in Delhi, hypertension can lead to serious health problems, such as heart disease or stroke, which are common causes of death in India.

What are the symptoms of hypertension?

Usually, people with hypertension do not feel any symptoms. Hypertension is known as “the silent killer” as it can cause deep damage to your body, even when you feel nothing. The only way to know if you have hypertension is to measure your blood pressure.

How do I know if I have high blood pressure?

Diagnosing high blood pressure is as simple as taking your blood pressure. Your nurse or doctor will place an inflatable bracelet around your arm while they listen to your pulse. It is fast and painless. Sometimes you can also check your blood pressure at a pharmacy or drugstore or use a home test.

What do the blood pressure numbers mean?

The blood pressure reading has 2 numbers. The first is known as systolic blood pressure, which is the pressure in your blood vessels when your heartbeats. The second number is called diastolic blood pressure, which is the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart is resting between beats. The combination of these two numbers is your blood pressure.

  • Normal blood pressure: 120/80 or less
  • Hypertension or at risk (near hypertension): between 120-139 / 80-89
  • Hypertension: 140/90 or higher

If the numbers that measure your high blood pressure are high twice in a row, your nephrologist in Delhi may diagnose you with high blood pressure.

How can I prevent hypertension?

The most important thing you can do to prevent hypertension is to eat a healthy diet, maintain a healthy weight, exercise regularly and avoid smoking.

How is hypertension treatment in Delhi done?

Hypertension treatment in Delhi is usually done with a combination of diet, exercise, and medications. Changes in diet may include eating vegetables, fruits, and whole grains and reducing the consumption of salt, alcohol and red meat. Exercising regularly can also help. This means exercising for at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. This may include things like walking, going to the gym, cycling or swimming. Anything that makes you sweat and breathe quickly.

If you don’t have time to exercise 30 minutes in a row, you can do it for 10 minutes, 3 times a day. You can also find small ways to stay active during the day, such as climbing the stairs instead of taking the elevator. The important thing is that you move regularly throughout the day. The best nephrologist in Delhi can help you determine what “exercising on a
regular basis” means in your case.

Your nephrologist in Gurgaon may also recommend some medication if changes in diet and exercise are not enough to lower your blood pressure. Your doctor will help you determine which pressure medication is right for you.

How hypertension affects our kidneys?

Although not everyone knows the close relationship between high blood pressure (hypertension) and the kidneys, it is necessary to remember that hypertension is the second cause of kidney failure. To do this, Dr. Vinant Bhargava, from the Nephrology and Hemodialysis Service of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi, has revealed the relationship between blood pressure and kidneys, explaining how hypertension can cause chronic kidney disease.

In the kidney, the arteries that irrigate it deteriorate, generating ischemia of its functional units (nephrons) which, together with hypertension transmitted to these units, generates progressive and irreversible destruction. This hyper pressure will favor an increase in the elimination of proteins in the urine, which can be assessed as a marker of renal damage.

“According to the pressure with which the blood reaches them, the kidneys behave in one way or another to manage to control the tension of the whole organism. If very high blood pressures arrive, the kidneys begin to resent and, little by little, they become stiffer to resist this high tension. This can lead to a loss of function and, in specific cases, if the progression continues, a renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or renal transplantation may be necessary, ”said Dr. Vinant Bhargava.
Hypertension Treatment in Delhi

How to detect kidney disease in cases of hypertension?

The detection of renal disease related to hypertension is described in hypertensive patients through the detection of a series of substances in the blood and / or proteins in the urine. Specifically, kidney disease in these cases can be diagnosed by detecting the decrease in glomerular filtration or the presence of albumin in urine:

  • The decrease in glomerular filtration is diagnosed by detecting in blood a substance generated by the body itself: creatinine. This substance is only eliminated through the kidney, so if it increases, it means that the kidneys should not be working well.
  • The decrease in glomerular filtration is usually accompanied by the loss of protein in the urine, specifically albumin – sometimes being the first defect detected.

Once renal disease linked to hypertension is detected, therapeutic measures should be carried out to study and control the possible progression of renal disease, taking into account all the factors that may impair the normal functioning of the kidneys and taking hypertension treatment in Delhi.

Prevention of renal disease due to hypertension

The way to prevent tension from causing kidney disease and more importantly, slowing down its progression, is by leading a healthy lifestyle:

  • Moderate physical activity 20-30 minutes every day.
  • Follow a Mediterranean diet.
  • Do not consume pre-cooked products.
  • Avoid toxic habits such as smoking or alcohol consumption.
  • And, in the case of stress, the most important habit change is to reduce salt consumption.

Thanks to the control of sodium excretion in the 24-hour urine it is possible to know what the actual salt consumption of a person is. By obtaining these precise data, top nephrologist in Delhi can make better recommendations for reducing salt intake. And, another fundamental measure for good blood pressure control is the use of antihypertensive drugs.

“Its use is widespread in today’s society and the different existing groups help to make the most ideal combination for each patient; in very relevant studies, there is a demonstrated decrease in cardiovascular events and a slowing of renal damage, although this should not lead us to forget that prevention is a very important part of treatment, ”explained nephrologist in Delhi.

For all this, it is so important to perform a blood test and urinary sediment in the annual or semi-annual controls and, in the case of hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), to carry out an exhaustive control of blood pressure (BP) to minimize progression.

Diabetes Treatment in Delhi

Diabetes

Diabetes treatment in Delhi
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs as a result of the body’s difficulty in properly using carbohydrates, which results in an increase in blood glucose. The cause is the lack of insulin production in the pancreas or failure in its use. It requires life long diabetes treatment in Delhi.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1.- When the pancreas of the person suffering from it does not produce the insulin that is needed. Type 1 Diabetes is more common in children and young adults although it can occur at any age. People with Diabetes 1 need to administer insulin to control blood glucose levels. Diabetes 1 represents 5-10% of the entire population with Diabetes.

Type 2.- When the insulin produced by the pancreas of the sick person is not effective and does not function. Type 2 Diabetes is more common in older people, particularly those who are overweight. Currently, as a result of a sedentary lifestyle and the increase in obesity of the population, it also occurs in younger people. Often, Diabetes 2 can be controlled with diet, weight loss and exercise and also with pills. Diabetes 2 represents 90-95% of the entire population with Diabetes.

What complications can Diabetes give?

When glucose circulates in the blood instead of being used as energy, its concentration increases, hyperglycemia. This entails short and medium-term complications that, if not prevented, can affect the majority of blood vessels in our body. The most significant long-term complications are at the level of small vessels such as those of the kidney (nephropathy) and retina (retinopathy) and large vessels, causing the so-called generalized vascular disease, which affects the heart, brain, and lower extremities. It also affects nerve conduction leading to the so-called diabetic neuropathy.

What symptoms guide us to the presence of Diabetes?

The onset of Type I Diabetes is often sudden and may include symptoms such as increased urinary frequency, abnormal thirst, extreme tiredness, irritability, weight loss, frequent infections. Diabetes 2 starts gradually and is generally not detected. Sometimes symptoms similar to those of type 1 diabetes may appear, but much more attenuated. Often the initial symptoms are not detected and the diagnosis of the disease is made late, years after the onset of the disease. At that time in half of the patients, complications are already present.

Who is at risk for diabetes?

Some people may be more predisposed to present the disease. The most relevant factors explained by a nephrologist in Delhi are:

  • Diabetes family history
  • Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity
  • Age over 45 years
  • Sedentary life
  • Diabetes during pregnancy
  • Abnormalities in glucose tolerance

Which is the best diabetes treatment in Delhi?

Diet, exercise, drugs called oral antidiabetics and finally insulin.

Can you prevent the onset of diabetes or its complications?

Overweight and sedentary life are modifiable factors that can clearly influence the onset of Diabetes in predisposed people. Therefore, there are two clear factors that can be prevented.

What can be done to prevent kidney disease?

Kidney disease caused by diabetes occurs in a third of the population with diabetes. The first specific fact that alterations in the kidney are occurring in the presence of a protein called albumin in small amounts in the urine. This alerts you to the possibility that the small blood vessels that feed the kidneys may suffer damage if we do not act. There are interventions and drugs that can prevent and reverse kidney damage in the early stages.
Diabetes treatment in delhi
Diabetic kidney disease “Diabetic nephropathy”:
Kidney disease caused by Diabetes is called Diabetic Nephropathy. It is a chronic and progressive disease that develops in a third of people with diabetes. High blood glucose levels affect the small vessels throughout the body and also those that are part of the kidneys. When these small vessels or capillaries are damaged, they do not work properly affecting their function, filtration Toxic products can then accumulate in the blood, while other necessary substances such as proteins are eliminated in the urine improperly. If this progresses, we can reach the complete loss of kidney function that stops its filtration process, warns nephrologist in Delhi.

Risk factors for kidney disease in Diabetes:

  • Tobacco
  • High blood pressure
  • Uncontrolled blood glucose figures
  • Family history of kidney disease

Signs and symptoms of kidney disease in Diabetes:

Symptoms of kidney involvement may appear late when the organ is already severely damaged. It is important to know the early signs that can alert us to the onset of kidney damage:

  • Proteins in the urine
  • Hypertension
  • Swelling of legs and cramps
  • Impaired renal function
  • Increased frequency and amount of urine
  • Less need for insulin
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness, paleness, and anemia

Treatment of Kidney Disease:

In the early stages of kidney damage, hypertension can be treated, glucose control can be improved and specific drugs for diabetic kidney disease can be administered. If the renal damage progresses and the renal insufficiency progresses, we may need treatment with techniques to replace the function of our kidneys, such as dialysis and transplantation.

Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a disease characterized by the appearance of blood in the urine (hematuria), elevated blood pressure (high blood pressure) and an acute renal function failure that causes the child to urinate less, and retain fluid and swell (edema). All these alterations may appear together or not and to varying degrees.

Why does it occur?

The nephrotic syndrome occurs because the kidney becomes inflamed, specifically internal structures called glomeruli that act as a filter or strainer. This inflammation of the glomerulus (glomerulonephritis) usually occurs after an infection, such as angina or skin infection caused by a bacterium called streptococcus (acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis).

It is not a kidney infection but occurs as a result of inflammatory response after infection. Other times, the glomerulus is altered without a known cause (primary glomerulonephritis) or by diseases that affect other parts of the body, such as in systemic lupus erythematosus, or IgA nephropathy (immunoglobulin A).
Symptom

Common symptoms of nephrotic syndrome are:

  • Blood in the urine (dark, tea-colored or cloudy urine)
  • Decreased urine volume (little or no urine may be produced)
  • Swelling of the face, orbits, legs, arms, hands, feet, abdomen or other areas
  • High blood pressure

Other symptoms that may occur include:

  • Blurred vision, usually because of a blood vessel in the retina of the eye that bursts
  • Cough that contains mucus or foamy and pink material because of the accumulation of fluid in the lungs
  • Trouble breathing, because of the accumulation of fluid in the lungs
  • General malaise (indisposition), drowsiness, confusion, aches and pains, headache Symptoms of acute renal failure or prolonged (chronic) kidney disease may occur.

Clinic
The way in which the nephrotic syndrome manifests is very variable because not all the symptoms always appear together and in the same way. Blood in the urine (hematuria), for example, maybe visible to the naked eye, with red or brown urine appearing, such as meat washing water (macroscopic hematuria) and other times it can only be seen by scanning the urine with a microscope ( microscopic hematuria). Characteristically, the child does not feel any pain.

The alteration of renal function may be more or less intense, the child may urinate somewhat less or almost nothing and the edema may be very obvious or subtle. Blood loss in the urine can be accompanied by proteinuria (loss of protein in the urine), which increases edema (swelling). They can appear on the eyelids, legs, ankles or be generalized and cause the weight to increase. Sometimes children complain of a headache (especially if they have high blood pressure) and are tired.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis is suspected by symptoms and exploration. To confirm this, a urine test must be performed in which hematuria with or without proteinuria and a blood test to assess renal function will be observed. Depending on the previous history and the clinical history, other tests will be requested to try to find the cause: pharyngeal or skin culture, immunological tests (antibodies involved in the alteration of the glomerulus). In highly selected cases, a renal biopsy (analysis of a kidney sample) is necessary to find out the cause and severity of the renal involvement.

Nephrotic Syndrome
Treatment

There is no specific treatment of the nephrotic syndrome. The objective is to control the alterations that it produces until the disease remits spontaneously:

  • It is recommended not to abuse salt. If there are edema and / or arterial hypertension, a salt-free diet must be performed and the fluid intake reduced.
  • Sometimes treatment with diuretics (medicines to urinate more) is needed to get edema and hypertension to decrease.
  • In the most severe forms that do not remit spontaneously, sometimes the use of corticosteroids and even other immunosuppressants are required (to control the immune response that is damaging the kidney) depending on the cause.

Expectations (prognosis)

The prognosis depends on the disease that is causing the nephritis. When the condition improves, fluid retention symptoms (such as edema and cough) and high blood pressure may disappear in 1 or 2 weeks. Urine tests take months to return to normal. Children tend to have a better prognosis than adults and usually recover completely. Only rarely do
they suffer complications or aggravate and progress to chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic kidney disease.

Adults do not recover as well or as fast as children. Although it is unusual for the disease to come back, in some adults acute nephrotic syndrome does return, and this group will have end-stage renal disease and may need dialysis or kidney transplantation.

IgA Nephropathy

IgA Nephropathy

IgA Nephropathy Treatment in Delhi
IgA nephropathy is chronic kidney disease. It progresses for 10 to 20 years and can cause end-stage renal disease. It is caused by deposits of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) protein in the filters (glomeruli) in the kidney. These glomeruli normally filter waste and excess water from the blood and send them to the bladder in the form of urine. However, IgA protein avoids this filtering process.

This can generate the following factor:

  • Blood and protein in the urine (hematuria and proteinuria)
  • Swelling of the hands and feet (edema)

It is the most common cause of inflammation in older adults. It is more common in Caucasian and Asian people. It is most often found in people in their teens at 30 years of age. The IgA protein is a normal part of the body’s immune system. It is not known what causes IgA deposits in the glomeruli. In more than 10% of affected families, it is hereditary. Some people who inherit the gene may not have any symptoms, but they can transmit it. Men are more affected than women.

IgA nephropathy is a silent disease that can go unnoticed for years. This can occur at any age, but more often the symptoms begin before the age of 40. The most common symptom is blood in the urine (hematuria). It takes many years to move on to the stage that causes problems. These include inflammation, recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract or intestinal disease. People with IgA nephropathy may also have flank pain and low fever. Very rarely, blood pressure can be dangerously high.

Causes

IgA is a protein called an antibody that helps the body fight infections. IgA nephropathy occurs when too much of this protein is deposited in the kidneys. IgA accumulates inside the small blood vessels of the kidney. Structures in the kidney called glomeruli are inflamed and damaged.

The disorder may appear suddenly ( acute ) or worsen slowly over many years ( chronic glomerulonephritis ).

The risk factors include:

  • A personal or family history of IgA nephropathy or purple Henoch Schoenlein, a form of vasculitis that affects many parts of the body
  • Be white or Asian

IgA nephropathy can occur in people of all ages, but it most often affects men from adolescence to the late 30s.

Symptom

Symptoms may not appear for many years.

When symptoms occur, they may include:

  • Urine with blood that begins during or shortly after a respiratory infection
  • Repeated episodes of blood or dark urine
  • Swelling of hands and feet
  • Symptoms of chronic kidney disease

IgA Nephropathy Treatment in Delhi

Tests and exams

IgA nephropathy is often discovered when a person with no other symptoms of kidney problems has one or more episodes of bloody or dark urine. No specific changes are observed during the physical exam. Occasionally, blood pressure may be high or there may be swelling in the body.

Exams include:

  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to measure renal activity
  • Creatinine in the blood to measure renal activity
  • Kidney biopsy to confirm the diagnosis
  • Urine analysis
  • Urine Immunoelectrophoresis

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent or delay chronic renal failure.

Treatment may include:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEI) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (BRA) to control high blood pressure and swelling ( edema)
  • Corticosteroids, other medications that inhibit the nervous system
  • Fish oil
  • Medications to lower cholesterol level

Salt and fluid consumption may be restricted to control swelling. In some cases, a diet with low to moderate protein intake may be recommended by a nephrologist in Delhi. Finally, many people should receive treatment for chronic kidney disease and may need dialysis. Expectations (prognosis) IgA nephropathy slowly worsens. In many cases, it does not at all. Your disorder is more likely to get worse if you have:

  • Arterial hypertension
  • Large amounts of protein in the urine
  • Increase in BUN or creatinine levels
Kidney stone treatment in Delhi

Kidney Stones

Renal calculi or stones in the kidney are formations of stone in the kidney or in the urinary tract, resulting in the accumulation of existing crystals in the urine. Its presence may go unnoticed, without symptoms, but it can also cause very severe pain that begins in the back and radiates into the abdomen toward the inguinal region. It is a pain that manifests itself in cramps, that is, with a peak of intense pain followed by some relief. In general, these attacks may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting and require medical and hospital care for kidney stone treatment in Delhi.

Kidney Stone treatment in Delhi

CAUSES

Among the causes of kidney stone, it is important to highlight:

  • Insufficient volume of urine, or supersaturated urine of salts;
  • Lots of calcium, phosphates, oxalates, cystine, or lack of citrate;
  • Metabolic disorders of uric acid or parathyroid gland;
  • Anatomical changes;
  • Urinary tract obstruction.

DIAGNOSIS

In addition to clinical evidence (severe pain and signs of blood in the urine), kidney stones can be diagnosed by abdominal X-rays, ultrasound or excretory urography, a more specific urinary tract examination.

SYMPTOMS

The typical symptom of kidney stones through urine is renal colic, a sharp, unilateral, severe low back pain that radiates to the front of the abdomen. In a few cases, patients are asymptomatic or little pain felt during the passage of the calculation by urethers.

However, there are other symptoms that may be associated with kidney stones, such as:

  • Vomiting and fever;
  • Blood in the urine;
  • Suspension or decreased urinary flow;
  • More frequent need to urinate;
  • Urinary tract infections.

KIDNEY STONE TREATMENT IN DELHI

Contrary to what was recommended in the past, excessive seizures should be avoided. Excess fluid can increase urine pressure in the kidney and consequently increase pain. Treatments can be of various types:

  • Medicines may be indicated only by the physician taking into account the cause of stone formation. During seizures, the use of potent pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs is indicated to relieve pain, which is extremely strong, almost unbearable;
  • Lithotripsy, that is, the bombardment of the stones by shock waves aiming at the fragmentation of the stone, which makes their elimination by urine easier;
  • Percutaneous or endoscopic surgery: through the endoscope and through small holes, the stone can be removed from the kidneys after fragmentation;
  • Ureteroscopy: Endoscopically allows the removal of stones located in the ureter.

KIDNEY STONE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Drink lots of water regularly. Two to three liters a day. This is the most important measure to prevent kidney stones;
  • Use a paper filter when you might be eliminating a calculation. Analysis of its composition may guide the physician in choosing the most appropriate treatment;
  • The use of pain medication should be prescribed by the doctor. Some of them are inadvisable for people with stomach problems or for pregnant women;
  • Control the intake of protein and calcium-rich foods if the calculations are formed by excess uric acid or calcium;
  • Do not self-medicate or make your own diagnosis. Seek medical attention, especially if you have severe back or abdomen pain and signs of blood in the urine.
Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism Treatment in Delhi

What is hypothyroidism?

In short, it is the drop in thyroid hormone production – triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). It is the most common disorder of this gland, which is in the neck region and resembles a butterfly.

Their performance reverberates throughout the body, interfering with women’s heart rate, bowel rhythm, mood, and menstrual cycle. The release of thyroid substances is orchestrated from the pituitary gland, which is in the brain.

Although produced in a smaller amount, T3 is the compound that acts for real in the rhythm of the functioning of our organs. The larger volume T4 is much less powerful. During its journey through the body, it turns into T3 – this, yes, the agent of the organism’s main operations.

In hypothyroidism, there is a decrease in the amount of T3 and T4 that goes into the bloodstream. One cause of the malfunction is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease in which the defense system itself creates antibodies to attack thyroid cells.

Hypothyroidism is often associated with slight weight gain (eminently by fluid accumulation) and difficulty in getting rid of extra pounds. But these are just the most visible consequences of the crisis.

In T3 and T4 deficits, the heart decreases blood pumping and may suffer from heart failure. The kidneys cannot filter the right red liquid. The bowel slows and the skin dries out. The eyes, in turn, are at serious risk for glaucoma.

Children are not free of thyroid at idle. Lack of hormones impairs growth and can lead to intellectual disability. Since in the first weeks of life it is difficult to see any sign of the problem, the famous test of the foot, up to 48 hours after delivery, is a great ally because it can detect malfunction of the neck gland. It is then possible to start Hypothyroidism Treatment in Delhi as soon as possible to rule out the risk of neurological damage.

The most frequent cause of low hormone production in children and adolescents is Hashimoto syndrome. It can appear at any age and is usually noted in younger people with low growth, delayed puberty, itching and hoarse voice.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

– Somnolence

– Slight weight gain

– tiredness

– Changes in mood

– Memory loss

– Dry skin

– Constipation

– weak nails

– Loss of hair

– Feet and hands cold

– Feeling of excessive cold

– Anemia

– Change in libido

– High cholesterol

Risk factors

– Women over 30

– Age over 60 years

– Genetic predisposition

– Menopause

– Diabetes

Pregnancy

– Postpartum period

– pollution

– Excessive iodine in the feed

Prevention

The most important factor for the formation of T3 and T4 hormones is adequate iodine intake. About 150 micrograms of the mineral are the perfect amount to protect the thyroid.

The compost is present in table salt, seafood, and fish. On the other hand, overuse of the salt shaker – a very common fact among Indians – impacts the gland and can trigger hypothyroidism.

For those already suffering from the effects of hormonal loss, the recommendation in food is to handle vegetables such as cabbage, turnips and collard greens. They contain a substance called thiocyanate, which can inhibit thyroid work. Soy is also suspected: legume isoflavone would alter the rate of thyroid production and disrupt iodine absorption. Talk to the professional about this subject.

The diagnosis

Even in the absence of symptoms of hypothyroidism, it is important to tell the doctor if there are cases of the disease in close relatives. It is also worth reporting any surgery or radiotherapy performed in the neck region. All this information is valuable to flag a possible failure to supply T3 and T4 to the body.

On clinical examination, the best nephrologist in Delhi palpates the neck to see if there are any changes in the thyroid. However, to confirm that the gland is working slowly, a blood test is required. The test can measure the dosages of T3 and T4. If the pair is down there, hypothyroidism is suspected. It turns out that hormonal falls are not noticeable at the onset of the condition. The question is the measurement of TSH, the pituitary hormone. If it is too high, it is a sign of trouble.

The use of ultrasound may be indicated to continue the investigation. In hypothyroidism, the gland tends to be atrophied. If the nephrologist in Gurgaon suspects a tumor, a scan called scintigraphy may be prescribed.

With the exception of the foot test, which reports congenital hypothyroidism in the newborn, neck ultrasound and tests that calculate the hormones TSH, T3, and T4 do not need to be done frequently in younger subjects unless there is any symptom or history of thyroid disease in the family. Other than that, checkups should only be requested for individuals over 40, especially women, who usually have more illnesses there.

The treatment

When thyroid production is low, the solution is to replace it with a synthetic version of the hormone T4. In the body, it is converted to T3 to act on cells. To reproduce this optimal thyroid function, the drug needs to be taken every day and the dose will depend on the degree of imbalance in the gland. Fine-tuning is not easy – so you can’t use the medicine without the nephrologist in Delhi.

The tablet has to be taken in the morning, fasting, about half an hour before breakfast. It needs a more acidic pH in the stomach to be absorbed. If something is ingested, the acidity reduces and compromises the use of the drug.

In general, hypothyroidism treatment in Delhi should be done for life. This is not the case only in transient forms of hypothyroidism, such as those that usually manifest in some postpartum women or even those caused by a side effect of medications. In these rare cases, hormone replacement is not always necessary and thyroid functions tend to normalize over time or with the suspension of the imbalance remedy.