What is it for?

The renal biopsy is a diagnostic test that helps to know what type of disease affects the functioning of the kidneys.

The diseases of the kidney that are evaluated with this test are the so-called nephrosis that causes lesions in both kidneys and that, often, in the beginning, they do not produce visible symptoms.

In general, these diseases are detected through the analysis of urine, in which blood usually appears in small quantities (microhaematuria) or proteins (proteinuria). Some blood parameters can also be altered, such as urea and creatinine, which can lead to a loss of the purifying capacity of the kidneys.

These anomalies suggest the existence of kidney disease, but they do not guide us about the type or the damage it has caused. Likewise, we cannot know what treatment should be established to stop or cure the disease.

With the result of the renal biopsy, nephrologist in Delhi can initiate an adequate treatment to improve or delay the disease. In other cases, it helps us to know the cause of kidney damage and the evolutionary prognosis of it.

How is a kidney biopsy performed?

The renal biopsy consists of the extraction of a fragment of tissue from a living organism with the aim of examining it later through the microscope with different stains and laboratory techniques.

The renal biopsy is performed by a needle puncture, in one of the kidneys, through the skin (percutaneous renal biopsy) (only in some exceptional cases requires a small surgical intervention that involves making a small incision in the area lumbar, under anesthesia, and get a small fragment when viewing the kidney).

In percutaneous renal biopsy, to select the most suitable area of the kidney, the needle is guided by ultrasound. To avoid pain, local anesthesia is administered. Before performing the puncture, the patient is asked to stop breathing for a few moments in order to avoid possible complications (your collaboration is very important at this time)

Once the test is done, you must remain in absolute rest, admitted to the hospital until the next day. After this period, if no complication has occurred, you are discharged.

Can there be complications?

In spite of all the previous precautionary measures, such as ensuring that coagulation is normal, some complications may occur in certain cases.

Among these, the most common are:

  • Pain in the puncture site
  • Dizziness, which usually resolves spontaneously
  • Bleeding from the urine to a greater or lesser degree. This is not a sign of alarm when it occurs in the first hours following the procedure

In exceptional cases:

  • Kidney bleeding may occur that requires the administration of sera and/or blood transfusion. In the case of not remitting the bleeding, it might be necessary to tamp a vessel (catheterization) or proceed to a surgical intervention due to renal hemorrhage.

What care should be observed after the renal biopsy?

After remaining in absolute bed rest for 24 hours, an ultrasound is performed to confirm the absence of renal complications.

At that time, the patient is discharged and can lead a completely normal life. The only recommendation is to avoid physical effort for a week.

It is also recommended that in the presence of fever, pain in the puncture site or presence of blood in the urine, urgently go to the hospital to contact your specialist.

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Dr. Vinant Bhargava

kidney specialist (DNB Nephrology)

Dr.Vinant Bhargava, M.B.B.S., DNB (General Medicine), DNB (Nephrology), MNAMS (Nephrology), FASN (Nephrology), is a specialist in kidney diseases....

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